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Publications

  • Завершення проекту "Підтримка інституційної спроможності українських міст в розробці та реалізації політик сталого енергетичного розвитку"

  • Повідомляємо про завершення у січні 2016 року проекту «Підтримка інституційної спроможності українських міст в розробці та реалізації політик сталого енергетичного розвитку», що успішно був реалізований Асоціацією енергоаудиторів за підтримки Агентства США з міжнародного розвитку (USAID).


  • Огляд ринку Менеджмент-консалтингових послуг
  • Стаття надрукована в Галицьких контрактах, № 4, 2002 р.

    Менеджмент-консультант - управлінець над управлінцями.
    Існування інституту МК є визнанням того, що люди - найцінніший капітал будь-якого бізнесу.

    Загальні тенденції

    За останні десять років спостерігається дуже великий ріст ринку консалтингових послуг. Це пов'язано з глобалізацією світової економіки. Останні досягнення інформаційних технологій, глобальні інформаційні мережі змінили уявлення про межі підприємств...


  • Відпочинок без "задніх" думок. Новорічно-практичне ессе
  • Стаття надрукована в Галицьких контрактах, № 1-2, 2002 р.

    Кожна цивілізована людина має власного стоматолога. Кожна сім'я, що піклується про свій добробут - має свого сімейного юриста. Кожна успішна компанія має своїх менеджмент-консультантів. І головним призначенням менеджмент-консультантів (надалі МК) є ідентифікація і пошук шляхів ефективного вирішення завдань (проблем), які ставить перед їх клієнтами життя. За подібним принципом діють всі консультанти - починаючи з лоцманів, що здійснюють навігацію кораблів ризикованим фарватером і закінчуючи системними інтеграторами, що навчають персонал клієнта роботі з встановленими АСУ. Але ж яку відмінність вносить саме приставка " менеджмент"?


  • Менеджмент-консалтинг, як спосіб підвищення ефективності управління
  • Стаття надрукована в Галицьких контрактах, № 4, 2002 р. 

    Етапи надання консалтингових послуг.

    Прелюдія. Надання консалтингових послуг, як вже мовилось, починається з усвідомлення необхідності змін. Причому таких змін, які ви з об'єктивних причин не можете здійснити самі. Тоді такі зміни можуть бути запроваджені стороннім професіоналом - менеджмент-консультантом. Отже, усвідомлення в голові, ресурси для проведення реструктуризації в кишені - можна запрошувати представника консалтингової компанії.


  • Банкрутство методом реструктуризації, або Ваш консультант Вам і лікар
  • Стаття надрукована в журналі Office, № 4, 2001 р.

    Приймаючи в увагу нашу з Вам, дорогий читач, зайнятість, будемо вважати, що з основними понятійними і процедурними моментами справ про банкрутство ми розібралися в попередньому номері цього часопису. І тому є думка підвести риску таким висновком: проведення процедури банкрутства це процес, спрямований на відродження, а не на ліквідацію підприємства, у якому застосовується операційна реструктуризації і юридичної техніка для роботи, як із боржником, так і з кредиторами.

   
Strategic management

 

   is the art and science of formulating, implementing and evaluating cross-functional decisions that will enable an organization to achieve its objectives. It is the process of specifying the organization's objectives, developing policies and plans to achieve these objectives, and allocating resources to implement...

the policies and plans to achieve the organization's objectives. Strategic management, therefore, combines the activities of the various functional areas of a business to achieve organizational objectives. It is the highest level of managerial activity, usually formulated by the Board of directors and performed by the organization's Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and executive team. Strategic management provides overall direction to the enterprise and is closely related to the field of Organization Studies. “Strategic management is an ongoing process that assesses the business and the industries in which the company is involved; assesses its competitors and sets goals and strategies to meet all existing and potential competitors; and then reassesses each strategy annually or quarterly [i.e. regularly] to determine how it has been implemented and whether it has succeeded or needs replacement by a new strategy to meet changed circumstances, new technology, new competitors, a new economic environment., or a new social, financial, or political environment.” (Lamb, 1984:ix) There are many software products available in the market that process and report organisational data and which aid in strategic management—e.g. SAP, SEM, SAS, etc.

Strategic management is a combination of three main processes which are as follows:

 

 Strategy formulation

 •Performing a situation analysis, self-evaluation and competitor analysis: both internal and external; both micro-environmental and macro-environmental.

 •Concurrent with this assessment, objectives are set. This involves crafting vision statements (long term view of a possible future), mission statements (the role that the organization gives itself in society), overall corporate objectives (both financial and strategic), strategic business unit objectives (both financial and strategic), and tactical objectives. •These objectives should, in the light of the situation analysis, suggest a strategic plan. The plan provides the details of how to achieve these objectives.

 This three-step strategy formulation process is sometimes referred to as determining where you are now, determining where you want to go, and then determining how to get there. These three questions are the essence of strategic planning. SWOT Analysis: I/O Economics for the external factors and RBV for the internal factors.

 •Allocation of sufficient resources (financial, personnel, time, technology support)

 •Establishing a chain of command or some alternative structure (such as cross functional teams)

 •Assigning responsibility of specific tasks or processes to specific individuals or groups

 •It also involves managing the process. This includes monitoring results, comparing to benchmarks and best practices, evaluating the efficacy and efficiency of the process, controlling for variances, and making adjustments to the process as necessary.

 •When implementing specific programs, this involves acquiring the requisite resources, developing the process, training, process testing, documentation, and integration with (and/or conversion from) legacy processes.

Strategy evaluation

•Measuring the effectiveness of the organizational strategy. It's extremely important to undergo SWOT to figure out the strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threat of both internal and external to the entity in question.

In general terms, there are two main approaches, which are opposite but complement each other in some ways, to strategic management:

  • The Industrial Organizational Approach based on economic theory — deals with issues like competitive rivalry, resource allocation, economies of scale assumptions — rationality, self discipline behaviour, profit maximization
  • The Sociological Approach deals primarily with human interactions  assumptions — bounded rationality, satisfying behaviour, profit sub-optimality. An example of a company that currently operates this way is Google. Strategic management techniques can be viewed as bottom-up, top-down, or collaborative processes. In the bottom-up approach, employees submit proposals to their managers who, in turn, funnel the best ideas further up the organization. This is often accomplished by a capital budgeting process. Proposals are assessed using financial criteria such as return on investment or cost-benefit analysis. Cost underestimation and benefit overestimation are major sources of error. The proposals that are approved form the substance of a new strategy, all of which is done without a grand strategic design or a strategic architect. The top-down approach is the most common by far. In it, the CEO (such as Don Sheelen, Jeff Bezos and Samuel J. Palmisano) possibly with the assistance of a strategic planning team, decides on the overall direction the company should take. Some organizations are starting to experiment with collaborative strategic planning techniques that recognize the emergent nature of strategic decisions. Strategic management is the highest in the sense that it is the broadest, applying to all parts of the firm. It gives direction to corporate values, corporate culture, corporate goals, and corporate missions. Under this broad corporate strategy there are often functional or business unit strategies. Functional strategies include marketing strategies, new product development strategies, human resource strategies, financial strategies, legal strategies, supply-chain strategies, and information technology management strategies. The emphasis is on short and medium term plans and is limited to the domain of each department’s functional responsibility. Each functional department attempts to do its part in meeting overall corporate objectives, and hence to some extent their strategies are derived from broader corporate strategies. Many companies feel that a functional organizational structure is not an efficient way to organize activities so they have reengineered according to processes or strategic business units (called SBUs). A strategic business unit is a semi-autonomous unit within an organization. It is usually responsible for its own budgeting, new product decisions, hiring decisions, and price setting. An SBU is treated as an internal profit centre by corporate headquarters. Each SBU is responsible for developing its business strategies, strategies that must be in tune with broader corporate strategies. The “lowest” level of strategy is operational strategy. It is very narrow in focus and deals with day-to-day operational activities such as scheduling criteria. It must operate within a budget but is not at liberty to adjust or create that budget. Operational level strategy was encouraged by Peter Drucker in his theory of management by objectives (MBO). Operational level strategies are informed by business level strategies which, in turn, are informed by corporate level strategies. Business strategy, which refers to the aggregated operational strategies of single business firm or that of an SBU in a diversified corporation refers to the way in which a firm competes in its chosen arenas. Corporate strategy, then, refers to the overarching strategy of the diversified firm. Such corporate strategy answers the questions of "in which businesses should we compete?" and "how does being in one business add to the competitive advantage of another portfolio firm, as well as the competitive advantage of the corporation as a whole?" Since the turn of the millennium, there has been a tendency in some firms to revert to a simpler strategic structure. This is being driven by information technology. It is felt that knowledge management systems should be used to share information and create common goals. Strategic divisions are thought to hamper this process. Most recently, this notion of strategy has been captured under the rubric of dynamic strategy, popularized by the strategic management textbook authored by Carpenter and Sanders. This work builds on that of Brown and Eisenhart as well as Christensen and portrays firm strategy, both business and corporate, as necessarily embracing ongoing strategic change, and the seamless integration of strategy formulation and implementation. Such change and implementation are usually built into the strategy through the staging and pacing facets.
 

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